At the ICCIR, we use a wide range of imaging modalities to describe and visualize tissue interfaces from the organ level down to the nanoscale. Below you can find a list and short description of the machines we commonly use. If you are interested in learning more, do not hesitate to get in touch with us.

2D and 3D Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy (Zeiss Crossbeam 340) including Energy dispersive X-ray microscopy (Oxford Instruments)

This electron microscope is suitable for classical secondary electron imaging and backscattered imaging of biological tissues and materials. Additionally, the FIB/SEM mode allows for high resolution volume electron microscopy (~7 nm voxel size) as well as ultrathin lamellae preparation for transmission imaging. Equipped with a STEM detector, lower resolution transmission imaging can be performed within the system at an acceleration voltage of up to 30kV. The system is equipped with an EDX detector for analyzing the elemental composition in biomaterials.

Zimmermann, Fiedler, Busse. Breaking new ground in mineralized tissue: Assessing tissue quality in clinical and laboratory studies”, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Volume 113
Dragoun Kolibová et al., “Osteocyte apoptosis and cellular micropetrosis signify skeletal aging in type 1 diabetes” Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 162, 2023, Pages 254-265

Micro-Computed Tomography (Bruker Skyscan 1727, Scanco µCT-40)

MicroCT imaging is the ideal lab-based imaging tool for analyzing 3D structures at high resolutions. These systems are commonly used to generate morphological information of complex structures such as bone specimens, zebrafish organs, teeth, or other biomaterials at voxel sizes between 0.75 µm and 20 µm. Soft tissue can also be scanned using prior contrast enhancement of specimens.

Hemmatian et al., “Reorganization of the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network characteristics in tumor sites of an immunocompetent murine model of osteotropic cancers” Bone. 2021 Nov;152:116074. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2021.116074.
Fiedler, et al., Severely Impaired Bone Material Quality in Chihuahua Zebrafish Resembles Classical Dominant Human Osteogenesis Imperfecta. J Bone Miner Res, 33: 1489-1499. 2018

Raman Microspectroscopy Imaging (Renishaw invia)

Raman micro-spectroscopy allows to assess the macromolecular composition of materials and tissues. It is specifically valuable for analyzing mineralized hard tissues as it provides the ability to assess both protein- and mineral-related components of the tissues simultaneously. The system is equipped with a 738 nm red laser, 5X, 20X, and 50X objectives as well as a 60X immersion objective for scanning moist or fresh tissue specimens.

Wölfel, et al., “Human tibial cortical bone with high porosity in type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by distinctive bone material properties” Bone, Volume 165, 2022, 116546
Fiedler et al., “Effect of short-term formaldehyde fixation on Raman spectral parameters of bone quality. J Biomed Opt. 2018 Nov;23(11):1-6. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.23.11.116504.

Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) imaging (Perkin Elmer Spotlight 400)

Similar to Raman spectroscopy, FTIR is used to assess the macromolecular composition of materials and tissues.

Schmidt et al., “Assessment of collagen quality associated with non-enzymatic cross-links in human bone using Fourier-transform infrared imaging”, Bone, Volume 97, 2017

Optical Coherence Tomography (OMES 4D MHz-OCT System)

The OMES OCT system operates at a wavelength of 1315nm and allows us to acquire up to 833 full volumes per second. This high temporal frequency is beneficial in precise tracking of soft-tissue as well as in elasticity estimation by tracking the movement of shear waves inside soft-tissue.

Neidhardt, Maximilian, et al. “4D deep learning for real-time volumetric optical coherence elastography.” International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery 16 (2021): 23-27.

Schlüter, Matthias, et al. “High-speed markerless tissue motion tracking using volumetric optical coherence tomography images.” 2020 IEEE 17th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI). IEEE, 2020.

Sprenger, Johanna, et al. “Surface Scanning for Navigation Using High-Speed Optical Coherence Tomography.” Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 8.1 (2022): 62-65.

Optical Coherence Tomography (Thorlabs Telesto OCT System)

The Telesto OCT system is an OCT system which operates at wavelength of 1300 nm. A high resolution scan head allows the acquisition of volumes with a size of up to 15x15x3.5mm. Further, optical fibers integrated inside needle can be connected to the system to enable among other things imaging of soft tissue at the needle tip.

Latus, Sarah, et al. “Rupture detection during needle insertion using complex OCT data and CNNS.” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 68.10 (2021): 3059-3067.

Gessert, Nils, et al. “Towards automatic lesion classification in the upper aerodigestive tract using OCT and deep transfer learning methods.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.03618 (2019).

Ultrasound Imaging (Cephasonics Ultrasound Imaging System)

The Cephasonics ultrasound platform boasts an impressive 40MHz sampling rate, enabling the high-resolution capture of dynamic processes within the body. With a sophisticated design featuring 256 individual channels, coupled with our custom volumetric ultrasound transducer equipped with a 16x16 element array, we seamlessly acquire 4D data without the necessity for multiplexing and the associated delays in volume acquisition.

Neidhardt, Maximilian, et al. “Ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging with spatio-temporal deep learning.” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 69.11 (2022): 3356-3364.

Neidhardt, Maximilian, et al. “Parameter identification for ultrasound shear wave elastography simulation.” Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 7. No. 1. De Gruyter, 2021.

Grube, Sarah, et al. “Influence of the field of view on shear wave velocity estimation.” Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 8.1 (2022): 42-45.